3.32 M. Hansen, M. and J. Simonsen (2012): “Appropriations and feedback from technology in use”, in P. .J Ågerfalk, J.E. Lundström, C. Keller, and M. Wiberg (Eds.): Proceedings of the 35th IRIS Seminar (Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia), IRIS 2012: Designing the Interactive Society, August 17–20, 2012, Sigtuna, Sweden.


Performing iterations of information systems development (ISD) may be tricky in complex organizational contexts where development, implementation, real use and redevelopment must meet with several implicated stakeholders. Furthermore crucial technical and organizational issues might not appear until the IS is exposed in the actual use context, showing its actual usefulness and quality. Implementing so-called pilot systems into the actual use context may reveal these needs for change and enable an iterative feedback loop from using the technology.

Looking at a case study of a pilot implementation of an electronic ambulance record (EAR) system, we qualitatively investigate the role of feedback of real use that enabled iterative redesign of the technical configuration and its organizational adaptation. Through observations of three events where stakeholders and users were present, we found that the pilot implementation fueled user motivation for changing the EAR while management realized the need for redesigning the technical configuration. As a result the pilot system was temporarily terminated from further operations.

The paper adds to the scarce literature of technology in use within ISD and proposes one answer as to how feedback can be used to propulse redevelopment in a pilot implementation setting Feedback does not simply involve developers and end-users but also co-realization processes between other stakeholders and end-users. We contribute theoretically to the appropriation matrix by Davern and Wilkin (2008) and propose how it can be improved to bridge past appropriations with hypotheses of future appropriations.

Keywords: pilot implementation, feedback, appropriations, technology in use, design in use, learning, iterative development, emergence, information systems development, isd